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Both permanent (at the age of five and a half years) and primary molars (that emerge after the second year), have very deep grooves that accumulate food and germs that can not be removed with a toothbrush. Usually there, at the deepest pit, dental caries begin. So a sealant is placed to protect the occlusal surtfaces of all permanent molars and some of the primary molars. A sealant is a varnish that permanently seals out debris and bacteria that can cause decay on the occlucal surface of posterior teeth.

The baby’s first tooth errupts at around 6 months of age. Many times, there are babies whose teeth can errupt at 4 months and others by the first year or a little later. All this is considered normal. Rarely a baby can be born with a tooth in the middle of the upper jaw. This is an extra tooth that the pediatric dentist needsto remove.

Golden rules for dental health:

  • We start brushing our teeth when the first tooth errupts (twice a day).
  • We do not use the baby bottle to put the child to sleep.
  • We visit the pediatric dentist before the end of the first year.

We must first check the child’s teeth to see if the odor comes from either a damaged tooth or the tissues around it. Usually when bad breath comes from the teeth, the lesions are obvious even to the parents and they do not need a specialist to diagnose them. If you do not see anything in your child’s teeth or gums and the tongue is well brushed, then the bad breath comes from other causes and you should consult your pediatrician.

It is nice to encourage children to take the initiative to brush their own teeth. But due to the fact that by the age of 8 their hand doesn’t have the motor skills necessary to brush their teeth effectively, an adult will have to do it again – mostly in the evening – from the beginning. Be careful to brush in a fun way, without the child realizing that you are the one doing all the work.

Tooth brushing starts at birth by cleaning your baby’s gums with a clean, damp gauze after each meal. When the first teeth start to errupt, we stop the gauze and start using a toothbrush with a small (rice grain size) amount of toothpaste containing 1000ppm of fluoride. We brush the baby’s teeth with this small amount of toothpaste in the morning and in the evening, until about the age of three and a half, that is, until the child can rinse well.

Some babies are born with a sucking urge that is a normal until the age of 3 and a half years. From the age of 3 onwards, we slowly start talking and encouraging the child to stop this habit. We praise our child a lot for the few minutes he/she managed not to suck his/her finger, avoiding to reffer to the hours he/she still uses it. From 4 years old on, we can use a special nail varnish that has a bitter taste and that we can find in the pharmacy, to “remind” the child not to put the thumb in the mouth. Under no circumstances, should we punish the child. If by the age of 4 and a half, there isno improvement, we can ask the pediatric dentist to help us. The age of 4 years and a half is the critical age to stop and beyond that, the habit becomes more and more difficult to stop, even with the aid of the pediatric dentist.


At the trird year of age, the first dental visit takes place that invilves the cleaning and fluoride treatment of the child’s teeth. Fluoride treatment is the process where the pediatric dentist applies a fluoride gel to the teeth for 1-4 minutes. Fluoride is important for teeth just as calcium is for the bones. It practically makes the enamel harder and more resistant to decay.

Pharmacies have rubber rings that you can freeze and give to your child to bite. The contact with the cold numbs the gums and relieves pain.

The child’s gums bleed during brushing and he cries. What should I do? Gingivitis is very common in babies and young children. It happens when plaque is not effectivelly removed and this creates inflammation of the gums which is shown by redness and bleeding. We need to brush harder on the inflammed gingiva and day by day see the bleeding reducing.

There are children who need orthodontic treatment from the age of 4 and a half years and others that have to wait until full permanent dentition . In any case, the pediatric dentist monitors your child’s growth and devellopment from the age of 3 and can determine the proper age to start orthodontic treatment.

In addition to the obvious reasons, which are the good aesthetics of the mouth and teeth that contribute to the confidence of the child, orthodontic treatment aims at the proper functioning of the oral system. Also, straight teeth are cleaned better and do not risk having dental caries.

Perhaps the degree of cooperation of the child is one of the most important factors influencing the outcome of the orthodontic treatment. That is the reason why it is important that the parent and therefore the child, feel confident and have a good and warm relationship with the doctor.

Painkillers can be very relieving for a toothache. However, it is very important to identify and treat the source of the pain,so you should contact your pediatric dentist immediately as a toothache in children can develop into a very severe swelling overnight.

When it comes to choosing the proper toothbrush, the rule of thumb is that “everything that brushes your teeth well is the right brush for you”. Many parents feel more comfortable using an electric toothbrush, while others do not. For babies who have a few front teeth in the mouth, there are special toothbrushes and as the baby grows up and has more teeth, we can choose a soft toothbrush… .. even one for adults! It brushes many teeth at a time and makes a more effective gum massage.

When brushing the teeth, the child should have his mouth open so that we can brush the upper and lower teeth separately. We start from the upper jaw, from the back teeth and place the toothbrush with a 45 degree angle in relation to the tooth. In this way we brush all the upper teeth around the outside by making small movements – vibrations at the point where the toothbrush touches. Then we turn the toothbrush to brush teeth and gums from the inside.

When we are done with the teeth, we also brush the child’s tongue. We shouldn’t be afraid to use enough power. The toothbrush cannot harm the gums. On the contrary, it makes them stronger and healthier. We must always keep the child’s head still with one hand, while we brush his/her teeth.

There is a number of factors that can affect the growth and development of jaws and the correct placement of the teeth. Habits such as finger sucking or the use of the pacifier,breathing through the mouth because of allergies or because of obstructed airways from swollen adenoids and tonsils, hereditary factors and the size of the teeth in relation to the size of the jaws are some of the main reasons why a child may develop orthodontic abnormalities.

Your baby’s first baby tooth will errupt at approximately 6-8 months of age. By three, the entire primary dentition will be completed.

At approximately 6 years of age, the first permanent molars errupt behind the posterior primary molars. At the same time, the lower permanent central incisors errupt. Very often, a lower permanent icisor errupts behind the primary one and for some time both teeth are in the mouth. But the tongue slowly pushes the permant incisor forward and the primary one falls out.

The primary dentition is very important not only for chewing, but also for gouding the erruption of permanent teeth in the correct position.

Pregnant women, under the influence of hormones, can develop severe gingivitis called pregnancy gingivitis. They should be very careful with the hygiene of their mouth and visit the dentist at least once during their pregnancy for a check up.

Primary teeth are in danger for decay immediately after erruption! Amon the most common aggravating factors is a nutrition high in carbohydrates and sugar and the poor oral hygiene. In infancy, the most important factor in the development of dental caries is the use of babybottle beyond the age of one and a half years old especially if the child takes it to bed at night. In fact, in this tender age, dental decay can be very aggressive and spread quickly to almost all teeth. This is why even 2 year olds, often need filnigs!!

Teeth should be brushed at least, twice a day: In the morning, after breakfast and in the evening before going to bed.The most important of which is brushing before bedtime. This should always be done by an adult (until the child is 8 years old). Morning brushing is good to be done by the child itself, so that he/she learns to take responsibility of his/hers oral hygiene.

Sucking a pacifier or a finger is a natural need in some babies. It is considered normal and we do not intervene, until the child is 3 years old. Most children after the 4th year of age stop the pacifier on their own. Whether the pacifier creates orthodontic abnormalities or not depends on how often during the day the child uses the pacifier, for how long each time and how much energy he/she puts into this activity. In most cases when the child stops the pacifier, the teeth return to their normal position on their own. In any case, the pediatric dentist must assess the condition of the child’s teeth.

Periodontal disease is any inflammation in the soft tissues around the teeth and can affect the gums, as well as the bone that supports the teeth. In children we see gingivitis very often and is related to poor oral hygiene. It does not develop into severe periodontal disease involving bone loss, except in rare cases, in medically compromised children.

We use an 1000ppm fluoride tooth paste from birth to the age of 8 years according to the guidlines of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. On children under tha age of 3 years and a hal,f we use a very small amount like a smear layer, because all kids of that age swallow the toothpaste.Later on when they learn how to rince and spit, we increase the 1000ppm fluoride toothpaste to a pea size amount.

The baby’s first teeth begin to errupt at the age of 6 months and the primary dentition is completed by the age of approximately 3 years. The four front upper and lower incisors will be raplaced between 6-8 years of age, but the posterior primary molars will remain in the mouth until the age of 12 years. This is quite a long time and those molars need proper care in order to be cavity free. Dental decay progresses quickly in primary molars, it can easily reach the pulp, creating necrosis and abscesses that will affect the permanent teeth that follow.

Nutrition plays a very important role in oral health. The use of carbohydrates – including sugar – is among the things we need to evaluate during the diet counceling in a pediatric dental practice. Nowadays, sugar is hidden not only in sweets but also in many foods that we would never think of like bread, yogurt, cream, etc. Therefore, our children, even if they do not eat sweets, are exposed to sugar and its effects on a daily basis. The effect of sugar on teeth has to do with the frequency and duration of its consumption. It is important for a child to have separate meals and not to be chewing on something all day.

The consumption of sweets should be limitted to once a day (preferably after the meal), close to the time of tooth brushing. Sticky sweets, such as candies, lollipops and chewing gum, have a dramatic effect on teeth and we should never consume them. In contrast, fruits and cheese are an innocent and healthy snack, both for the child and for his/her teeth.

The pediatric dentist knows how to use a special language to explain in a simple and understandable way what happens when a tooth gets decayed. One idea is: “you probably forgot to brush your teeth one evening and sugar from the food you ate got stuck on your tooth. A small bug came in your tooth while you were sleeping, a bug so small your eyes can’t see and is called bacteria. It ate the sugar that you did not brush away, it became very strong and got into your tooth to make a dark cavity to nest inside “.